November 1, 2007

In the IDSA Journals

C. diff ratesC. difficile Found on Asymptomatic Patients

This study offers reasons why efforts to control Clostridium difficile infection haven't been more successful: the bacteria may be thriving on asymptomatic patients and items in their immediate vicinity such as call buttons, bed rails, bedside tables, and telephones. The researchers found that spores were easily transferred from the patient's skin to investigators' hands. (Riggs et al., Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:992-998.)





Pill Box Organizers Improve HIV Patients’ Viral Suppression

Inexpensive pill box organizers are an easy, successful, and cost-effective tool to help patients take their medications as prescribed, according to a new study of low-income urban residents living with HIV infection. Pill box organizers were associated with a 4 percent improvement in adherence, 0.12 log reduction in HIV viral load, and an estimated 11 percent reduction in the risk of progression to clinical AIDS. At only $5 per pill box, this intervention was highly cost-effective. (Petersen et al., Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:908-915.)

Herpes simplex encephalitis in Sweden  

A Swedish study conducted over a 12-year period involving patients with herpes simplex encephalitis found an incidence of 1 case per 2,200,000 population. The one-year mortality rate was 14 percent. Of the survivors, 87 percent were readmitted to the hospital, and an epileptic seizure was the reason for readmission in 24 percent. This corresponds to a 60- to 90-fold increase in risk, compared with that in the general population. (Hjalmarsson et al., Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:875-880.)

Pregnancy May Slow—Not Accelerate—Progression to AIDS

A new study may help put to rest fears that pregnancy accelerates progression to full-blown AIDS in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy. The study revealed that pregnancy may, in fact, slow disease progression in these women. (Tai et al., J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1044-105.)

Some Good News on PCV Serotype Replacement

A study of people vaccinated with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) shows the non-vaccine serotypes that replaced those targeted by the vaccine came from a diverse population of serotypes—not from a few especially virulent or drug-resistant “escape” strains. Capsule-switching was rare. The authors say the study is “cause for cautious optimism” that widespread use of the vaccine will not result in the rapid appearance of dangerous new strains. (Lipsitch et al., J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1221-1227.)

Genital HPV Infection Common in Males

A study of 240 sexually active heterosexual male university students found genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was more common than that reported in similar groups of women. HPV was found in multiple genital regions. The findings have implications for HPV prevention strategies targeting women. (Partridge et al., J Infect Dis 2007;196:1128-1136.)

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ACIP Recommends Meningococcal Vaccine for High-Risk Two-Year-Olds
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Hib Vaccine Shortage Likely
Hot Topics in Infectious Diseases 2007
IDSA Publishes Updated Guidelines on Sporotrichosis
In the IDSA Journals
Low Rates of Flu Vaccination Underscore Need for Vigilance
New CA-MRSA Evaluation and Treatment Flyer Available
CDC Creates Database of State Immunization Laws
New Compilation of Latest HIV Research Available
Stay Informed about Daily ID News
Updated IDSA/SHEA Infection Control Fellows Course Available
Call for Public Comment: HIV/AIDS Performance Measures
Support Builds for STAAR Act
Keep Up with Drug Approvals, Recalls, Adverse Events
Vaccine-derived Polio Outbreak in Nigeria
Welcome, New IDSA Members!
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