March 2022
Global Neighbors

LEADERSHIP UPDATES

LETTER FROM THE CHAIR

As the New Year has unrolled, may it bring you peace, health, and a return to normalcy.

This issue of the newsletter is the first of 2022 and our pre-convention edition. The 2022 TESOL Convention, March 22-25, will be held in hybrid mode in Pittsburgh, PA, and those who are attending in person will be able to reconnect with our global colleagues after about two years. Hybrid option also gives access to EFL-IS members who cannot make it to this special convention, which is perhaps the first ever hybrid TESOL convention. I am personally looking forward to attending and meeting with everyone at the convention next month!

EFL Interest Section (EFL-IS) will have a strong presence at this convention. We have worked over the year to create specialized opportunities for professional development of our membership at the convention. If you attend the convention in either mode, you are invited to two special EFL-IS events: the academic session entitled “Innovations, challenges, and possibilities: Teacher agency in EFL settings” (March 25, 09:30-11:00 AM EST USA, Room 327) and the annual EFL-IS open meeting. This academic session will include presentations from a panel of educators representing four different regions of the world. You can find further details about EFL-IS sessions, including several intersections in partnership with other Interest Sections, in the convention program book. The open meeting of EFL-IS will be a unique opportunity to network with the EFL community from around the world.

I want to appreciate the EFL-IS leadership for their commitment and contribution throughout this past year. In particular, I thank Chair-Elect Beatriz Erazo (Bolivia), Past Chair Araceli Salas (Mexico), and our outstanding editors Pong-ampai Kongcharoen (Thailand) and Shanhua Zhu (China) for the work accomplished since the last convention. If you feel interested in serving EFL-IS, please let me know as we have opportunities on the board.

Stay connected and have a rewarding convention!


Shahid Abrar-ul-Hassan, PhD, has been working as a language educator, researcher, and teacher developer. He is Professor of English language education at Yorkville University, British Columbia Campus in New Westminster, BC, Canada and a subject expert with the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Training. He is a Visiting Professor at the School of Foreign Languages, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

LETTER FROM THE EDITORS


Pong-ampai Kongcharoen


Shanhua Zhu

Dear readers,

Welcome to the March issue of EFL-IS Global Neighbors!

We are delighted to share with you three interesting articles. First, Radia Bouguebs and Nadia Idri present their insights on a critical issue, “Seeking an Appropriate Implementation of Multimodal Based-Instruction Approach into Post-pandemic EFL Classroom.” Next, Atipat Boonmooh shares some useful tips about “Using Online Tools to Improve Online Classroom Communication.” In the final article, Jimalee Sowell shares her experience related to teacher reflections entitled “Using Four Lenses of Critical Reflection as a Framework for Reflective Practice in the English Language Classroom.” In the leadership updates section, Shahid Abrar-ul-Hassan (Chair) offers some convention highlights of the EFL-IS.

We hope you enjoy reading this issue as we all look forward to the 2022 TESOL Convention.

Pong-ampai Kongcharoen and Shanhua Zhu


Pong-ampai Kongcharoen earned her master’s degree in TEFL from Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. She is a Fulbright FLTA alumna and an English lecturer at Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. Her research interests lie in corpus linguistics, applied linguistics, and second language acquisition.

Shanhua Zhu, MA English language and literature and PhD Arts, is Associate Professor as well as master’s supervisor in the School of Foreign Language, Southeast University, PR China. Her research interests include English language education, language and culture, applied linguistics, anthological linguistics, and sociology of arts.

ARTICLES

SEEKING AN APPROPRIATE IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTIMODAL BASED-INSTRUCTION APPROACH INTO POST-PANDEMIC EFL CLASSROOM


Radia Bouguebs


Nadia Idri

1. Introduction

Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and its worldwide emergence in people’s lives have changed the communication landscape dramatically. Under such a changing climate, digital and multimodal practices are becoming common in the meaning-making of 21st century English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners. To maintain the communication flow and remain involved within their communities, they developed new digital skills as a repercussion to the multimodal technologies affordances including social networking, digital media, etc. The prevalence of this new communication landscape has deeply altered the terrain of language and literacy education.

In today’s educational settings, digital communication technology is frequently used in language classrooms. Learners prefer to present their classroom’s works via technologies that combine features extracted from different modalities (text, audio, image, etc.). They frequently use PowerPoint Presentation applications, photos, uploading videos, etc. When more than one mode is used to express meaning, the result is multimodality. Multimodality represents “The combination of different semiotic modes – for example, language and music – in a communicative artefact or event” (Leeuwen, 2005, p. 281).

Students’ talent in manipulating semiotic modes including visual, verbal, written, gestural and musical resources while communicating calls upon a change in the teaching/learning approach. In order to take benefit from this diversity in meaning-making, EFL educators are urged to integrate multimodal practices into their language instruction that involves the manipulation of visual, gestural, spatial, kinaesthetic, images, and sound, mediated through the use of apps, platforms and networks available in the digital devices. Since then, the integration of multimodality-based instruction into the EFL classroom is more than ever a must, especially with the sudden shift to digital learning with the COVID-19 pandemic, to satisfy the needs of a category of learners who are digitally oriented and digitally skilled.

2. Multimodality: Gaining Prosperity in EFL Classroom

During the COVID-19 time, increasing attention has been given to multimodal language learning. Since the primary task of educational institutions is to make the process of creating, protecting, integrating, transmitting and applying knowledge an easy and accessible one, it is also their role to find appropriate and effective strategies to change their ways of teaching and to move towards the use of different educational platforms. Like all the educational institutions in the world, “Algerian schools and universities have adopted various designs for distance education, like online lectures, distance drills and exercises, virtual tutorials, video conferences, group works, and assessments” (Benadla & Hadji, 2021 as cited in Bouguebs, 2021, p. 143). Post to the pandemic, the new protocol suggested by the Algerian ministry of education to resume classes by keeping on remote learning makes multimodal pedagogy the appropriate alternative.

Because of the multimodal nature of online contexts, teaching has become much more than being able to read and write. Under such a changing climate, students were immersed in a learning environment that gives them both the opportunity to carry out their educational activities remotely benefiting from the websites, digital platforms’ feature. Owing to the fact that students’ competency in manipulating the semiotic modes while communicating may surpass their teachers’ one, it is highly recommended to integrate multimodal practices in EFL classes.

3. Introducing Multimodal Pedagogy

Multimodality is a skill that involves the use of "multiple" modes of representation to convey and produce meaning via a harmonious combination of elements including linguistic (written and spoken), visual, spatial, aural, and gestural modes. Multimodality or social semiotics “includes questions around the potentials – the affordances – of the resources that are available in any one society for the making of meaning; and how, therefore, ‘knowledge’ appears differently in different modes” (Kress, 2011, p. 38).

The diversification of the modes for meaning-making to fit the communicative purposes of a given social context makes multimodality a suitable pedagogy for English instruction. This new evolving educational concept and practice is regarded as a source of creativity and modernity for both teachers and students.

Numerous benefits could be gained from the integration of this new pedagogy. Besides fostering students’ multimodal competence, studies revealed the effectiveness of implementing multimodal tasks in TESOL teacher education. This will more likely help in facilitating for them the safe integration of multimodal pedagogy in their future classrooms.

4. Facilitating the Integration of Multimodal Pedagogy in EFL Setting

The shift in strategy-based instruction from print-based instruction to multimodal based instruction necessitates a deep reflection on how teaching and learning is conceived, approached and practised.

The new demands of the rapidly changing digitalized world with the high-tech generation makes skills people need change accordingly. That is why; opting for a multimodal-based instruction makes teachers guarantee students’ use of diverse competencies and eventually become more attentive, more engaged, more involved, and more creative. In EFL contexts, integrating multimodal pedagogy needs to be facilitated through the diversity of the activities and the materials; (or “modes”) they need to employ namely: pictures, videos, audios, listening materials (conversations, story-telling, songs), body language, suprasegments, colors, figures, illustrations, sounds (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001).

However, there should be a quick response from language teachers to take advantage of multimodality. That is why, this paper comes to pave the way to a series of papers, workshops and conferences related to action research and syllabus design so as to facilitate the integration of multimodality in EFL classrooms.

5. Sample of Multimodal Tasks

According to the literature, researches involving the multimodal-based instruction in the EFL classrooms in Algeria are scarce. Accordingly, we dig deep in other EFL setting were researches in this field are more advanced to supply Algerian EFL teachers with examples of a multimodal tasks. We selected samples from Li’s (2020). Teachers were asked to create effective instructional resources for their ESL/EFL students using ICT tools and drawing on selected language teaching methods and principles (Li, 2020, p. 4). The multimodal assignments are as follows:

  • Google Slides presentation with audio to present English phonetic consonant;
  • E-book video using Canvas (music embedded) to present Thai consonant;
  • PowerPoint presentation with animation to present English word formation;
  • Online presentation using Nearpod and Flipgrid to present English pronouns (this presentation includes both lecture and assessment);
  • Prezi presentation with audio to teach Rhyming with rimes (lecture)


Figure 1 and 2 are illustrations of two assignments created by two participants in Li’s study.

a. Video-embeded e-books

Figure 1. A screenshot of one page in the participant’s video-embedded E-book.


(Source: Li, 2020, p.7)

b. Video-embedded PowerPoint Project:

Figure 2. A screenshot of one page in the participant’s Video-embedded PowerPoint project


(Source: Li, 2020, p.7)

Conclusion

The EFL context is by nature interactive and embeds interpersonal relationships, culture, discourse, emotions, diversity, etc. Sticking to the traditional methods based on language accuracy, mere linguistic features of language use, and scores when performing in a foreign language makes the learning-teaching processes complex. A shifting paradigm is needed more than ever with the destabilized learning in the COVID-19 era. Urgent changes should be made and multimodal-based instruction should be in the heart of the next programmes. Students possess different modes for learning, have different socio-cultural backgrounds, and have unique learning styles. That is why, students’ differences make of the learning experience unique for every student. With multimodality, we can offer a multitude of tasks to teach the same content.

In a nutshell, moving to multimodal approach is moving to equity in education, equality in opportunities, and to a more inclusive learning.

References

Bouguebs, R. (2021). Integrating flipped learning pedagogy in higher education: Fitting the needs of COVID-19 generation. Applied Linguistics, 5(9), 144- 155

Kress, G. R. & van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. Edward Arnold.

Kress, G. (2011). Multimodal discourse analysis. In Gee, J. P & Michael Handford, M (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 35-50). Routledge.

Li, M. (2020). Multimodal pedagogy in TESOL teacher education: Students’ perspectives System, 94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system

Freyn, A. L., & Ed. D. (2017). Effects of a multimodal approach on ESL/EFL university students’ attitudes towards poetry. Journal of Education and Practice,8(8), 81-


Dr. Radia Bouguebs is a senior lecturer at the Department of English in the Ecole Normale Supérieure “Assia Djebar” of Constantine. She holds a PHD degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Constantine- 1-. She has been teaching English for more than 15 years. Her research interests are technology enhanced language teaching/learning, reading and writing effective teaching methods, mobile assisted language teaching/ learning, ESP teaching/learning. She has many publications nationally and internationally. She started a rich reviewing experience in various committees in academic journals and editorial boards since 2019.

Pr. Nadia Idri is an Algerian full professor at the Department of English, Bejaia University, and a project manager of EMP-Bejaia (English for Medical Purposes) in the Faculty of Medicine. She is chairing a research team in LESMS lab. She is a major in applied linguistics and ELT, and a minor in educational psychology. She is a founding member of the Algerian English Language Teacher Training Workshops (AELTT); an Alumni Engagement Innovation Fund (EIEF) winner in 2015) sponsored by the US Department of State. She chaired the Master of Linguistics and the scientific committee of the Department of English for six years. In her faculty, she has been an active participant in most pedagogic and scientific tasks like teacher development and evaluation, doctoral training and mentoring, self-evaluation cell, quality assurance cell, the Council of ethics and deontology, “cellule d’accompagnement de sensibilisation, d’appui et de médiation » (CASAM). She is an associate editor of the journal “Traduction et Langues”, and the editor-in-chief of the “Journal of Studies in Language, Culture and society (JSLCS). Nadia is the founder of the creative writing and academic writing competitions (CWAWC) in Algeria since 2015 and is recently a volunteer in the TEMPUS-EMEI project about inclusive education in the Maghreb in her university. In addition, Nadia is the owner and CEO of the private school “MASSA School”.

USING ONLINE TOOLS TO IMPROVE ONLINE CLASSROOM COMMUNICATION

Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the majority of instructors around the world taught in a face-to-face classroom setting. They are all likely to understand the significance of online education. However, it was not easy for some teachers to teach entirely online because of the sudden change. Changing from physical face-to-face classes to online classrooms necessitates a shift in communication medium. Classes have been held using a variety of online meeting systems, including Zoom, Google Meet, and Microsoft Team. This online learning will unavoidably transform the way teachers and students communicate in the new normal.

A number of studies (Punsa et al., 2022; Kanchai 2021; Atmojo & Nugroho, 2020) demonstrate that the primary issue with online learning is a lack of student involvement and very little or no interaction between teachers and students. Online communication requires more effort and planning than communicating with students in a face-to-face classroom. In a face-to-face setting, teachers can communicate with their students via the use of body language and facial expression (Alawamleh et al., 2020). Simultaneously, teachers can view students' body language and facial expressions, enabling them to communicate successfully with one another. This is even more challenging in an online situation, particularly when teachers continue to speak while students remain silent and do not turn on their cameras. Teaching a second language or a third language to students even more challenging to the teachers as much of what is conveyed is through nonverbal communication. Students may be hesitant and unwilling to speak up, especially if they are new and do not know each other.

In this article, I share the techniques I used with students to enhance their online communication. The activities below are appropriate for high school and university students studying English. They can be used at the start of the first day of instruction.

Activity 1. Getting to know the teaching and learning platform

Aim: To familiarize students with the learning platform's available features and functions.

  1. Create a PowerPoint presentation for students about the selected teaching and learning platform. Explain the key features of the platforms. These may include screen sharing, joining a breakout room, transferring files or photos, using annotation tools, capturing screen photos, using reactions features, and changing the background photo. Allow time for students to explore all of the functions as they observe the teacher demonstrate.
  2. Provide students with a sequence of exercises in which they may put what they've just learned into practice. For example, ask certain students to select a photo they like or some documents in various formats and share them to the entire class, or ask students to display a specific reaction emoticon, or ask them to create any pictures on the shared screen.
  3. Emphasize the significance of communication in an online setting. Tell students that they can now turn on their camera, speak into the microphone, chat in the message box, use reaction emoticons, or communicate using annotation tools.

Photo caption 1: Example of getting to know the teaching and learning platform






Activity 2: Our favorite song is…

Objective: To allow students to get to know one another in a relaxed setting and to develop collaboration skill

  1. Inform students that they will be in a small group and that they must introduce themselves to the other members of the group. They must share their favorite music in a group, pick only one song, and prepare for a brief presentation.
  2. Using the Breakout Room tool, divide students into smaller groups. If required, the teacher can join each breakout room to meet students and support them with their work.
  3. When the time is over and students are back in the main room, remind them of the importance of communication and that everyone may have to turn on the camera and introduce themselves.
  4. The teacher may provide immediate feedback to each group, particularly if the group performed well during the presentation. This may assist members of the following group in implementing techniques to improve their presentation.


Activity 3: Our key important messages are…

Objective: To get to know each other and share and work together

  1. Inform students that they will be working in small groups. Students might work in the same prior group or be placed in a different group so that they can get to know more classmates.
  2. Play a short video clip on inspiring TED talks to the entire class of pupils. If required, repeat the clip. Ask the students to work in groups to summarize the most significant messages from the talk.
  3. Inform students that they must prepare this summary in a collaborative shared slide. This can be Google Slides, Jamboard, or Miro. The summary should be no longer than one page.
  4. Allow the students to work in the breakout room. After the time is up, each group takes turns presenting a presentation regarding their summary.
  5. The teacher uses the "Poll" tool to create a poll and asks students to vote for the group that presented well as well as the group that provided the most informative slide.
  6. The teacher discusses with students the factors that lead to effective communication, why some groups’ slides received the most votes and what characteristics should be included in good slides. Teachers may emphasize on students the need of using verbal and nonverbal language, as well as user-friendliness and informative visual aids, in order to improve online communication.


Photo caption: 2: Example of key important message from a talk





Sources: Josh Kaufman | 20 Hours to Learn Anything (Key Points Talk) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isrgSDjrprg

Conclusion

The exercises listed above are intended to help students interact successfully in online classroom settings. The teacher's efforts and the students' engagement will result in an enjoyable and exciting experience for the entire class.

References

Alawamleh, M., Al-Twait, L.M. and Al-Saht, G.R. (2020), "The effect of online learning on communication between instructors and students during Covid-19 pandemic", Asian Education and Development Studies, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-06-2020-0131

Atmojo, A. E. P., & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL classes must go online! Teaching activities and challenges during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13(1), 49–76. https://journalregister.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/register/article/view/4051

Kanchai, T. (2021). EFL teachers’ ICT literacy acquisition to online instruction during COVID-19. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(2), 282-312.

Pansa, D., Pojanapunya, P., & Boonmoh, A. (2022). Students' perception of classroom learning and emergency online learning during COVID-19 pandemic. Pasaa Paritat, 37. (in press)


Atipat Boonmoh, PhD in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching, is an Associate Professor at School of Liberal Arts, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi. His research interests include computer-assisted language learning (CALL), teacher education, and lexicography.

USING FOUR LENSES OF CRITICAL REFLECTION AS A FRAMEWORK FOR REFLECTIVE PRACTICE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

Introduction

How do we learn to teach? Of course, many of us have received most of our training through university courses. Once we started teaching, we might have also learned about teaching through professional development activities, such as workshops and continuing education courses. Despite our efforts to improve our teaching, there might be distance between our knowledge and teaching practices. In other words, some of our beliefs and practices may not serve us nor the students we teach. At times, however, we might be unaware that some of our practices could be improved. One way we can stay honest about the efficacy of our teaching practices is to continually examine our teaching through reflective practice. Many models of reflective practice in teacher education focus primarily on seeing the self only through the self. The purpose of this article is to suggest a reflective practice carried out through four lenses. The article starts with an explanation of Brookfield’s (2017) Four Lenses of Critical Reflection. The article then provides practical ways to carry out reflection through each of the four lenses.

Four Lenses of Critical Reflection

While reflective models in teacher education have primarily focused on seeing the self only through the self, reflection is rarely only an individual exercise. Reflection is also a communal and social practice (Lipman, 2003). Brookfield (2017) established the Four Lenses of Critical Reflection that involves examining the self through student’s eyes, colleagues’ perceptions, personal experience, and theory. Using these four lenses provides a more holistic view through which to examine our teaching practices than can be attained solely through self-reflection. It may not be possible or even desirable to view every event through all four lenses, but by examining ourselves through different lenses at different times, we can achieve a more nuanced reflective practice. Although these lenses are explained as distinct categories, they are often interrelated. For instance, you might examine a personal experience that you later get feedback on from colleagues, or you might immerse yourself in theory that you later talk over with colleagues in a learning community. The next part of the article provides practical suggestions for carrying out reflection through each of the four lenses.

Students’ Eyes

Since the most important goal of teaching is student learning, feedback from students is the most important type of feedback you can receive (Brookfield, 2017). Student feedback can be gathered through both formal and informal means. Informal feedback happens in the moment as you are teaching. For instance, you might have the sense that students need more practice on a certain topic or skill. You could simply ask students questions: Do you now feel confident using -ed and -ing adjectives? What parts of module two do you still need more work on? For lower-level learners, you might provide statements with yes-no responses: 1. The instructions for the poetry assignment are clear: Yes/No. To make responses anonymous, you can have students close their eyes and raise their hands in response to a given statement: Raise your right hand if you feel you need more practice with tag questions. If you have the necessary technology available, you can also implement a quick poll. Formal feedback, on the other hand, is feedback that is planned. Formal feedback might come in the form of surveys or other forms and might be collected at critical times such as the mid-term period or end of a course. With both informal and formal feedback, anonymous feedback should account for at least some student feedback. Students who are worried that being critical could affect their grade may hesitate to provide honest feedback (Brookfield, 2017).

Colleagues’ Perspectives

Colleagues can be a great source of feedback since they know your context and typically have shared experiences. One way to learn from a colleague or colleagues is through co-teaching and soliciting feedback (Brookfield, 2017). Following a co-taught class, you can discuss with your co-teacher what went well and what could be improved. You can ask your co-teacher for general feedback on your teaching, or you might ask for advice on specific aspects with targeted questions such as Did I give effective instructions? Did I give students enough think-time before eliciting their answers? You can also solicit feedback on teaching artifacts, such as lesson plans and teaching materials. If it is not possible to co-teach, you can get feedback from colleagues by showing them a recording of your class or a snippet from a recorded class.

Another way to obtain colleagues’ perspectives is to form learning communities that meet regularly to discuss current problems, issues, and strategies. Learning communities might meet face-to-face, or they might meet virtually through professional learning networks (PLNs). PLNs are platforms or spaces where teachers can meet and interact with each other. PLNs might be carried out on platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Zoom, Google Hangout, or any other platforms that allows for discussion, support, and problem-solving.

Personal Experience

Examining our personal experiences is critical in developing effective teaching practices. One way to examine our teaching practices is to consider our own experiences as learners (Brookfield, 2017). For instance, thinking about how you felt as a student when asked to provide an answer in front of the entire class can help you consider how to effectively arrange in-class speaking opportunities. If you are aware that being singled out in a class discussion can be humiliating and demotivating, then you will look for ways set up speaking activities for your learners that are motivating and safe. While recognizing that all learners are different and that our personal experiences may not speak for everyone, looking at our teaching practices through our experiences as a student can inform our practices.

Another way to examine the self it through critical incidents. Critical incidents are unexpected events occurring during a lesson that when examined can provide insight for teaching and learning. Jasper (2013) developed the ERA model (experience, reflection, action) for examining critical incidents. The ERA model provides a framework for reflecting on critical incidents by asking key questions regarding the incident: (a). Experience: What was the issue or experience? (b). Reflection: Why did it happen? (c). Action: What action will I take in the future? For example, a student asked for permission to not be required to work with a certain classmate. You refused the request, explaining that we all need to be able to work with a variety of people. Later you realized that maybe the student had a legitimate reason for not wanting to work with a particular student, and you feel you should have talked to the student more to better understand the situation before responding. The ERA model can provide ways of seeing the self through the self that may not be immediate or obvious.

Theory

When considering how we can reflect through theory, we might think of Elbow’s (1986) believing and doubting game, whereby we examine theory through both skepticism and belief. On the doubting side, it is important to realize that theory is often just that, theory. It usually takes many years and numerous studies to understand the degree to which a method, technique, or approach is effective in practice. For instance, Krashen and Terrell’s Natural Approach eschewed the explicit teaching of grammar. While this approach was widely popular for many years and remains popular with some followers, a number of empirical studies have shown that explicit grammar instruction is often important for language acquisition. Even a theory that has been validated through multiple studies may not be useful or appropriate in all contexts or teaching situations. On the believing side, theory is approached with openness, with a practitioner experimenting with theories or aspects of theories that might be effective in a particular context. For instance, after learning about the Silent Way in my master’s program, I tried a modified version of it with some of my classes. As I attempted to elicit speech from my students without speaking, my students became frustrated and said, “Teacher, speak.” Ultimately, the Silent Way was not terribly successful in my classes, but it did help me think about the importance of wait time in providing students enough time to formulate responses.

When reflecting through theory, it is important to probe dominate theories for their relevancy in your context. For example, fully implementing communicative language teaching (CLT) in a large class may not be possible. However, examining practice through a CLT lens might prompt a teacher-practitioner into considering how teaching can be carried out in ways that provide ample communicative practice. It is also important to consider a range of theories, as effective practice is often informed be multiple theories rather than a single theory. Imagine, for instance, that a practitioner upholds genre theory as the most appropriate way to teach writing skills. While this practitioner would use genre theory as a guiding principle, this practitioner’s practice might also be informed by expressive pedagogy and process pedagogy.

Conclusion

Reflective practice has long been a critical aspect of teacher education and professional development programs as advancement towards masterful teaching practice involves some level of reflection (Sellers, 2017). While reflection is important in developing effective teaching practices, reflection is often limited to models focused exclusively on self-reflection. In this article, I have presented Brookfield’s Four Lenses of Critical Reflection and provided some ideas for carrying out reflection though each lens. However, methods of implementing reflection through each lens are not limited to my suggestions. Consider how you might incorporate the four lenses in your next teaching semester or module. Map out a plan for how you can reflect through each of the four lenses. Keeping track of your reflections and the insight gained through each one will help you to not only improve your teaching but can also inform your reflective practice.

References

Brookfield, S.D. (2017). Becoming a critically reflective teacher (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Elbow, P. (1986). Embracing contraries: Explorations in learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.

Jasper, M. (2013). Beginning reflective practice (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.

Lipman, M. (2003). Thinking in education (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840272

Sellars, M. (2017). Reflective practice for teachers (2nd ed.). Sage.


Jimalee Sowell is a PhD candidate in Composition and Applied Linguistics at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests include disability studies, teacher education, and second language writing instruction.

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