October 2017
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ARTICLES
SCHOLARSHIP ON L2 WRITING IN 2016: THE YEAR IN REVIEW
Tony Silva, Kai Yang, Elena Shvidko, & Ji-young Shin


Tony Silva

Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN, USA


Kai Yang
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA


Elena Shvidko
Utah State University
Logan, Utah, USA


Ji-young Shin
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN, USA

[NOTE: This article has not been copyedited due to its length.]

Introduction

Even in a relatively small field like second language writing, staying abreast of the current literature can be difficult. Since 2010, the number of publications on second language writing has exceeded 200 per year. 2016—with more than 280 publications—was no exception. To address this situation, we provide an overview of scholarship on second language writing published in 2016.

Data for this review come from a search of databases such as ERIC (Educational Information Resources Center), LLBA (Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts), PQDT (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), WorldCat (an online database that provides access to the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries), and Amazon.com, as well as a regular perusal of more than 65 journals that, to a greater or lesser extent, typically publish articles on second language writing. The types of publications we address include primarily journal articles, books (authored and edited), book chapters, and dissertations. While we have tried to provide a comprehensive view of the literature, we recognize that there will be some (perhaps many) publications that we have unintentionally omitted. For this, we apologize in advance.

The studies

The scholarship on second language writing discussed in this study was divided into six major categories: Writer, Reader, Context, Instruction, Text Analysis, and Assessment. These six major categories were further divided into subcategories to represent each study’s research focus as accurately as possible.

Writer

The first major category of literature focuses on writers. For our purposes, an L2 writer is defined as someone who is writing in a language other than his/her native language(s)/mother tongue(s). In 2016, L2 writers were studied in a wide range of national, regional, and institutional contexts. This category includes a total of 65 publications, which are further divided into six subcategories: writing processes, variables that affect composition and response to feedback, writers’ attitudes and perceptions, writer development and identity, translingual practice, and creative language use.

Writing processes. Writing processes is the largest writer subcategory. The scholarship on writing processes, which consists of 18 publications, investigates a wide range of topics related to the writing processes of L2 writers from diverse linguistic backgrounds. These topics include how L2 writers respond to comments and how they make changes (Christiansen & Bloch); how academics construct L2 authorial identity (Crawford, Mora Pablo, & Lengeling); how writers construct multiple identities through L2 writing (da Rosa; Feng & Du-Babcock); the writing processes of Spanish heritage language learners and Spanish foreign language learners (Elola & Mikulski); how immigrant students use figurative language to describe their language acquisition experiences (Erdmann); how multilingual professionals make language choices in written communication for different purposes; (Fahmee & Yong); rhetorical, cultural, and technological strategies in translation (Gonzales); Iranian students’ dialogic interaction in writing tasks (Kheradmand Saadi); frameworks for analyzing writers’ strategies (Kim); negotiating linguistic identities and constructing ideological commitments to language differences (Lee & Jenks); effective English learning/writing strategies (Lee & Heinz; Lei); how L2 students approach writing assignments in a general education course (Otto); narrative-text-creating strategies when writing in a third language (Pap); how Indonesian students construct meaning in collaborative writing (Rezeki); Chinese EFL students’ intertextual practices in academic writing (Wang a); and how L2 writers navigate and integrate reference resources (Yoon a).

Variables that affect composition and response to feedback. Studies of variables that affect writers’ composing processes and their response to feedback also constitute a large writer subcategory. Thirteen publications addressed a wide range of variables that influence how L2 writers produce texts and respond to feedback. Variables affecting the writing process include: task complexity and pre-task preparation (Abrams & Byrd); (online) collaborative writing or learning (Alghammas; Jiang); task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboard skill (Barkaoui); writer’s gender and writer-reader social distance (Boshrabadi & Sarabi); socialization into reading and writing in a writer’s L1 (Gherwash); L1 early reading skills (Goodrich, Farrington, & Lonigan); L2 proficiency (Gustilo); writer’s reflection (Kelly); and cognitive and motivational individual differences (Mallahi, Amirian, Zareian, & Adel). In addition, variables affecting how L2 writers respond to feedback include writer and reviewer second language proficiency (Allen & Katayama; Allen & Mills; Yu & Lee, c). These three studies investigated how language proficiency influences the type and quantity of feedback L2 writers give and incorporate.

Students’ attitudes and perceptions. Students’ attitudes and perceptions were addressed in 12 publications. Topics investigated in this subcategory include L2 writers’ perceptions of collaborative writing and revision (Alharbi; Hanjani), students’ beliefs about the effectiveness of academic writing training (Cahyono & Amrina), authorial stance in academic research writing (Chang), writers’ expectations and experience with writing lab tutorials (Eckstein), L2 students’ understanding of and attitudes towards academic citation (Hu & Lei; Stockall & Villar Cole), research writing anxiety and self-efficacy (Ho), L2 students’ perception of the impact on L1 writing of English writing training (Ismail), students’ attitudes towards digital story software in the writing class (Oskoz & Elola), students’ attitudes towards the WBLL approach (an online writing platform with access to online reference resources) in writing instruction (Mashhadizadeh & Rezvani), and students’ perceptions of teacher-student conferences (Yeh).

Writer development and identity. Writer development and identity were addressed in 12 publications. Chang & Schleppegrell investigated how L2 writers learn about authorial stance through explicit linguistic resources. Crossley, Kyle, & McNamara investigated the development of 57 L2 university students with regard to global, local, and text cohesion over a semester-long, upper-level EAP course. Cumming, Lai, & Cho synthesized studies on how L2 writers develop their ability to integrate source materials. Grabe & Zhang investigated reading-writing relationships in first and second language academic literacy development. Kosaka reflected on how he develops writing skills through writing journals. Montanari, Simón-Cereijido, & Hartel investigated the development of writing skills of students in grades one through five in an Italian-English two-way immersion program. Ortmeier-Hooper & Ruecker’s edited book focuses on how linguistically diverse immigrants and resident writers transition from high school to college. Soltero-Gonzalez & Butvilofsky investigated the early Spanish and English writing development of bilingual preschoolers. Gonca looked at how L2 writing skills can transfer to L1 writing skills by studying 40 native Turkish-speaking university students. Su & Chou examined cultural transfer in Chinese and English narrative styles from a bi-directional perspective. Bagheri & Riasati identified different writing problems among EFL PhD and master’s students in International English Language Testing System (IELTS) writing. Carter & Aulette provided ten practice tips to overcome barriers in research article publication.

Translingual writing practice. Cavazos investigated how resilient language practices help bilingual Latina/o academics in rhetoric and composition succeed in higher education. Milu looked at how three Kenyan hip-hop artists engaged in translingual communicative practices. Singhasak & Methitham explored how advanced English language learners in Thailand integrate Thainess in their English writing. A special issue of College English was devoted to studies on translingual work in composition. The topics addressed in this special issue include an introduction to translingual work (Lu & Horner), transfer and translingualism (Leonard & Nowacek), close reading and translingualism (Trimbur), and material translingual ecologies (Ray; Jordan).

Creative language use. Azizoglu investigated how doctoral students integrate the poetic function of language in their writing, and Iida studied how a Myanmarese EFL college student wrote haiku (a Japanese three-line poem) in his L2 to describe his study abroad experience.

Reader

The second category is the reader. A total of 16 publications focused on readers. Reader here includes instructors who read texts written by L2 writers and students who read their peers’ work. Out of the 16 publications, three subcategories were identified: reader practice, reader belief, and reader development.

Reader practice. Reader practice is the largest reader subcategory, including nine publications. Chandler-Olcott & Nieroda investigated how teachers work in a community with each other to increase their ability to address students’ needs as L2 writers in an urban high school context. Murphy investigated how ESL and writing program faculty at a college partnered with faculty across the curriculum to help international students avoid plagiarism. C. Y. H. Chang (a) examined 13 English majors’ employment of text-based emoticons in web-based peer response. C. Y. H. Chang (b) reviewed two decades of research on L2 peer review to identify reviewers’ perceptions, processes, and products. Finn & Avni studied ten writing instructors to find out how they negotiate classroom practices and institutional language policies. J. W. Lee looked at how writing teachers deal with translingual writing in composition classrooms, with a specific focus on grading practices. Romero investigated how teachers examined the constructions of race, gender, and sexuality in multilingual writing classrooms. Qasim examined teachers’ practices regarding EFL error feedback in a Pakistani university. Tomaš & Mott-Smith gave suggestions to writing teachers about how to cope with time demands and simultaneously maximize students’ learning.

Reader belief. In this subcategory, Cahyono & Mutiaraningrum revealed Indonesian EFL teachers’ experiences with and opinions about Internet-based techniques for writing instruction. Collazo reflected the personal experience of a writing center tutor working with English language learners. Kibler, Heny, & Andrei investigated in-service secondary teachers’ perspectives on adolescent ELL writing instruction. Shvidko (b) conducted an interview with Professor Paul Kei Matsuda and discussed building the expertise of L2 writing teachers and researchers. Teng investigated how two Chinese teachers’ beliefs changed after a professional development project for teaching writing.

Reader development. Only two publications touched upon reader development, and they focused on writing teachers. Bruce & Rafoth’s book serves as a guide for writing center tutors to address the growing need of the international student population. Canagarajah investigated how the exposure to translingual writing promotes teacher development in composition classrooms.

Context

Context is the third major category. The term context is used in a broad sense here, including institutional context, the field of L2 writing in general, national/regional context, and publication context. A total of 29 publications were identified in the context category.

Institutional contexts. Bailey investigated the experiences of tutors, administrators, and students in a South African multilingual writing center and proposed models for running such centers efficiently. Crosthwaite conducted a longitudinal multidimensional analysis of the effectiveness of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instruction in a university in Hong Kong. An edited book by de Oliveira & Silva explored second language writing in elementary classrooms and discussed instructional issues, content-area writing, and teacher education. O’Meara (a) conducted an institutional ethnography by looking at the second language writing community at Arizona State University. Randall investigated a sheltered university bridge program for ESL students at a large public university in the US that identified the dynamics between students and of team-teaching. Shapiro, Cox, Shuck, & Simnitt proposed a framework by which instructors and administrators can promote the empowerment of multilingual students and applied the framework in their own institutional context. Shvidko (c) investigated the impact of negative institutional factors on teacher feedback. Simpson, Caplan, Cox, & Philips investigated the design of research, curricula, and programs to support graduate student writers. Xu, Huang, & You investigated how Chinese undergraduate students write their theses in light of the influence of institutional language standards.

The field of L2 writing. The field of L2 writing was addressed in nine publications. Hyland (c) reviewed key studies to describe the methods and methodologies in second language writing research. Kakh & Bitchener wrote a short piece about the 14th Symposium on Second Language Writing. Manchón & Matsuda edited The Handbook of Second and Foreign Language Writing, which is an authoritative reference compendium of the theory and research on second language writing. Mu & Matsuda investigated how L2 writing professionals perceive replication in L2 writing research. Paiz called for more dialogue and critical discussion about sexual identities and their sociocultural relevance in L2 writing. Polio & Friedman’s edited book provided a systematic way for readers to understand, evaluate, and conduct L2 writing research. Williams & Condon called for an alliance among scholars in the fields of composition studies, translingualism, and second language writing. Silva and his colleagues provided a systematic review of scholarship on L2 writing in the year 2014 and 2015 (Silva, Park, Zhang, & Chen; Silva, Chen, Velazquez, & Yang).

National and regional contexts. National and regional contexts represent a geographical division of L2 writing contexts. For example, Ahmed & Abouabdelkader investigated the realities and challenges of teaching EFL writing in the 21st century Arab world. Devi investigated the role of class size in second language teaching in India and problems faced by language teachers in writing classes. Luo & Hyland examined the role of local English teachers as literacy brokers or “text mediators” in the Chinese context and discussed the types of difficulties these English teachers experienced. Naghdipour looked at English writing instruction in Iran and the major factors that shape the dynamics of English writing at different levels of education. Saeli investigated how EFL teachers and students’ perceptions of written corrective feedback were influenced by Iranian sociocultural norms with regard to English education. Silva, Wang, Zhang, & Paiz’s edited book explored the status of L2 writing teaching and research in a number of national and regional contexts. Finally, Zhang investigated how Chinese students prepared themselves for undergraduate studies at universities in the United States.

Publication context. The publications in this category mainly comprise Hyland’s (a) article “Academic Publishing: Communicative Inequality and Possible ‘Linguistic Injustice’” and two responses generated by this article (Politzer-Ahles, Holliday, Girolamo, Spychalska, & Berkson; Hyland, b). In addition, Bou Ayash investigated postmonolingual language representations in academic literacies.

Instruction

The category of instruction was the largest in our review. There were a total of 96 publications related to various aspects of teaching second language writing. These publications were further divided into five subcategories: pedagogical approaches, response to student writing, computer-assisted teaching, genre-based instruction, and curriculum.

Pedagogical approaches. Considerable attention in the category of instruction was paid to various pedagogical approaches. This subcategory consists of 38 publications. Among all pedagogical approaches described in the literature, the topic of connections between reading and writing was discussed in eight publications, including Hirvela’s book about connecting reading and writing. Other scholars explored the influence of reading on writing or vice versa (Lee & Schallert; Park; Shum, Shi, & Tai), text interpretation (Doolan & Fitzsimmons-Doolan) and summary writing (Lin; Marzec-Stawiarska), and the use of freewriting as a tool for understanding literature (Salas, Garson, Khanna, & Murray).

Along with the incorporation of reading into a writing course, other pedagogical approaches described in the literature were a multimodal composing approach (Jiang & Luk; Shipka; Tang), a collaborative writing approach (McDonough, Crawford, & De Vleeschauwer; Porto), a process approach (Joaquin, Kim, & Shin; Masaeli & Chalak), a translingual approach (Guerra; Motlhaka & Makalela), and an alignment-oriented approach (Haiyan & Rilong). Finally, Davies’ book provides a comprehensive, theory-based discussion of various pedagogical approaches that can be used in L2 composition.

In addition to various pedagogical approaches, a separate group of publications included in this subcategory described the implementation of specific classroom activities and strategies, including task-related activities (Amiryousefi; Johnson & Nicodemus; Kim & Kim; Mahdavirad; Meurers; Shintani, Aubrey, & Donnellan), singing as a tool for increasing L2 fluency in writing (Alisaari & Heikkola), metadiscourse markers (Farhadi, Aidinloo & Talebi), translation drills (He), functional metalanguage (Humphrey & Macnaught), using drama in L2 writing (Nurhayati), strategies supporting ELL writers (Olson, Scarcella, & Matuchniak), modeling online peer revision (Saeed & Ghazali), explicit vocabulary instruction (Solati-Dehkordi & Salehi), journal peer writing (Wang, Shen, & Lu), thematic organization (Wei, a), metacognitive strategies (Xiao), languaging (L. Yang), and the use of literature in class (Setyowati).

Response to student writing. The second largest group of publications in the category of instruction is related to response to student writing, the core activity of writing instruction, and is represented by 28 publications.

A constant scholarly interest in written corrective feedback is reflected in ten publications, as it has undoubtedly been one of the most widely-researched topics in the field over the past several decades. Various types of written corrective feedback were explored in the literature, including direct and metalinguistic (Benson), coded (Liu), and indirect (Park, Song, & Shin), as well as computer-mediated corrective feedback (Shintani). Shvidko (a) conducted an interview with Professor Icy Lee, in which she reflected on her plenary speech given at the 2015 Symposium on Second Language Writing about the comparison between comprehensive and focused corrective feedback.

Along with the different types of written corrective feedback, some scholars also examined its effectiveness, either for student writing development (Bitchener & Storch) or for student writing accuracy (Khanlarzadeh & Nemati; Wagner). Finally, the researchers’ aim of increasing the benefits of written corrective feedback was also evident in Rowley’s work, which discussed a variety of strategies that writing teachers can use to correct students’ writing; and in Shepherd, O’Meara, and Snyder, who described a particular strategy that they implemented in their own classrooms called grammar agreements (i.e., agreements between a teacher and a student on how much grammar correction the student wanted to receive) to increase the usefulness of teacher corrective feedback.

Apart from written corrective feedback, several other types of response to student writing were of interest in scholarly publications in 2016. They include multimodal feedback (Elola & Oskoz) and audiovisual feedback (Woodard). Furthermore, three publications described various tools used to respond to student writing, such as screencasts (Alvira), Turnitin (Kostka & Maliborska), and rubrics (Shirinian).

In addition, a collaborative approach to responding to student writing (i.e., writing conferences) was the topic of two publications. Maliborska & You examined instructor and student perspectives on conferences, whereas Mirzaee & Yaqubi took an interactional angle by describing the functions of silence during writing conferences.

Peer feedback was addressed in seven publications, including a comprehensive review of research on peer review from 2005 to 2014 conducted by Yu & Lee (b). The themes explored in the articles on peer feedback include the use of computer-assisted peer feedback (T. Chen; Y. Yang), factors influencing peer feedback (H. Min), the use of peer feedback in low-proficiency classes (Sivaslian), the effect of peer feedback on the improvement of student writing (Wang b), and strategies used during peer review (Yu & Lee a).

Two publications took a comparative approach and examined the differences among various types of feedback. Diab compared peer feedback, teacher feedback, and self-feedback, and Tigchelaar analyzed the cases of self-review, peer review, and no review. Finally, response to student writing was also described in its relation to teacher education (Lee b) and teacher professional development (Lee, Mak, & Burns).

Computer-assisted teaching. As technology rapidly develops, it finds its implementation in L2 teaching, and the field of second language writing is no exception. We found 22 publications that addressed various topics related to computer-assisted teaching of L2 writing. In this subcategory, seven publications described the use of technology in collaborative writing.

First, Alshalan and Bikowski & Vithanage examined the effect of web-based collaborative writing on individual L2 writing development. In a similar vein, Challob, Bakar, & Latif were concerned with the influence of computer-assisted collaborative writing on student writing comprehension and writing performance. Furthermore, three publications examined computer-assisted collaborative writing itself. I. Li (a) and S. Kim described student interaction during collaborative writing, Miller discussed the process of computer-assisted collaborative writing tasks, and Rouhshad & Storch compared interactional patterns in computer-assisted and face-to-face contexts. Finally, Zou, Wang, & Xing examined how students provided corrective feedback on each other’s papers using Wikis.

Along with computer-assisted collaborative writing, one line of research explored the implementation of various technologies in the L2 writing classroom, including mobile instant messaging (Andujar), corpora (Alhujaylan; Baghestani; Poole; Tran, Tutin, & Cavalia), Facebook-based e-portfolios (Barrot), blogging (P. Chen), an online formulaic sequence word-combination checker (Grami & Alkazemi), online discussion forums (Jayaron & Abidin), iPads and digital cameras (Rowe & Miller), Google Docs (Seyyedrezaie, Ghonsooly, Shahriari, & Fatemi), a student response system called “Socrative” (Sprague), Facebook (Vikneswaran & Krish), concordancers (Reynolds), and online reference materials (Yoon).

Genre-based approaches. Another subtopic in the category of instruction was research on genre-based approaches, which is represented by six publications in our review. Whereas Troyan addressed the issue of implementing genre-based pedagogy in standards-based writing, other scholars discussed a particular writing genre, such as email writing (Y. Chen), argumentative writing (Miller, Mitchell, & Pessoa; Nodoushan; Salter-Dvorak), and research paper writing (Tuyen, Osman, Dan, & Ahmad).

Curriculum. The last topic in the category of instruction is related to curricular issues in the teaching of writing. Y. Min was concerned with graduate student writing support and discussed designing writing service courses for international graduate students. O’Meara (b) suggested using writing fellow tutors for the purpose of providing support for students and teachers in L2 writing classrooms.

Text Analysis

The fifth theme is text analysis. 49 studies focused on analyzing text-based features, which make up slightly more than one sixth of the total amount of the scholarship on L2 writing in 2016. The articles on text analysis were divided into seven subcategories. The categories are presented in order from the largest to the smallest.

Lexical and lexico-grammatical analysis. The first subcategory, lexical and lexico-grammatical analysis, accounts for the largest portion of the texts category. The two main foci of studies at the lexico-grammatical level were lexical bundles and lexical competence and use. Eight out of the fourteen studies examined lexical bundles or word combinations from diverse perspectives. The criteria for these lexico-grammatical comparisons mainly encompassed factors intrinsic to writers such as their first languages, L2 proficiency levels, and/or expertise (Appel & Wood; Chen & Baker; Garner; Öztürk & Köse; Pan, Reppen, & Biber; Yoon). Also, these writer variables were examined in combination with other aspects of writing. For example, Staples & Reppen discussed the lexico-grammatical features in undergraduate first-year writing across different L1s, genres, and language ratings. Edwards & Lange explored the use of lexical bundles (three word clusters) across three different varietal types of English based on Kachru’s Three Circles model: the Inner Circle (native English), Outer Circle (ESL), and Expanding Circle (EFL). The other six studies investigated lexical competence and use, such as lexical richness, density, sophistication, and collocational competence (Johnson, Acevedo, & Mercado; Kyle & Crossley; Vedder & Benigno; Zhai), lexical cohesion (Kadiri, Igbokwe, Okebalama, & Egbe), and shell nouns (Schanding).

Two or more levels of text analysis. A number of studies approached understanding written texts from a more comprehensive and holistic perspective, featuring two or more levels of text analysis. Two studies accentuated distinctive characteristics intrinsic to non-native writers’ narrative story production (Kamimura) and textual appropriation (Shi). Four studies were focused on bilingualism and examined lexical features and code switching (Fairclough & Belpoliti), literacy elements and heteroglossic voices (Spence & Tao), attributes and potential use of NNS’ writing (Massung & Zhai), and the cross-linguistic impact of spelling and sentence generation skills on writing (Danzak & Arfé). Flowerdew & Wang’s analysis contemplated the negotiation between L2 scholars, journal editors, and peer reviewers at various lexico-grammatical levels and types of revisions in their published articles. Expanding bilingualism, Gilyard, Cushman, and Bawarshi, respectively, explored the themes of rhetoric, meaning making, and genre fixation within a translingual approach.

Rhetoric and written discourse. Rhetoric and written discourse analysis was the third largest subtheme in the text category. Two studies discussed rhetorical transfer (Arsyad & Arono; Hosseini), and nine studies looked at L2 writing, employing written discourse analysis. Zarepour addressed the issue of cohesion, and Miller & Pessoa explored organization. The majority, however, analyzed the use of either metadiscourse (Aziz, Jin, & Nordin; Dehghan & Chalak; Jin & Shang; Kazmei; Lee & Deakin) or stance and interaction features, such as appraisal and evaluation (Xie; Y. Yang).

Syntactic analysis. Syntactic analysis, the fourth largest theme in the text category, mainly focused on error analysis and language development. Five out of the eight studies examined specific syntactic features such as conjunctions (Darweesh & Kadhim), verb construction (Salido), modality (Elturki & Salsbury), nominalization and grammatical metaphor (Liardét), and free variation (Ramanan). Other studies compared syntactic characteristics of a specific L2 population, such as the L2 writing of native users of sign language (Thierfelder & Stapleton). Al Karazoun put a finer emphasis on a specific genre, analyzing errors in Jordanian undergraduate writers’ news headlines. In addition, Schenker analyzed syntactic complexity in cross-cultural e-mail exchange.

Genre analysis and move analysis. Genre analysis and move analysis have also been of steady interest. Qin & Uccelli conducted a cross-genre analysis to study Chinese EFL writing. Based on the move analysis framework, Nathan probed the options used in pedagogical business case reports, while Zarepour & Saidloo examined EFL request emails.

Orthographical analysis. In this category, Bai investigated cross-linguistic transfer of spelling from Spanish to English by comparing Spanish-speaking non-native speakers’ (NNS) and native speakers’ (NS) spelling skills. Hamilton also examined L2 spelling systems in comparison with L1 spelling in terms of cognitive models for spelling.

Systemic functional analysis. Studies based on systemic functional analysis comprise a relatively small number. Within the systemic-functional framework, Crane analyzed L2 personal letter writing and Wei (b) investigated thematic choice in Chinese college students’ English essays.

Assessment

Writing assessment, the last category of this review, consists of a relatively small number of studies. Five themes were identified among 29 publications. The themes include L2 learners, technology in assessment, teachers and raters, scoring rubrics, and genre and discipline.

L2 Learners. Shifting from teachers and raters, researchers focused on learners as autonomous agents in writing assessment. Scholarship on learner-centered assessment highlighted formative values of assessment, for example, learners’ perceptions and needs (S. Kim; C. Lee; I. Lee, a), methods that facilitate learners’ involvement in the process of assessment and feedback (Huang), and a comparison of peer and teacher-assessment (Jung). Two studies addressed the issues to consider in writing assessment in regard to distinctive characteristics of L1 writing and diverse L2 writer populations. Harrison discussed predictors of spelling and writing skills by comparing L2 learners’ performance on various writing tasks with L1 writers’. Finally, di Gennaro compared international and U.S. resident L2 learners’ errors and drew implications for tentative criteria in placement testing.

Technology in assessment. There was a great deal of interest in using technology for assessment. Automated essay evaluation was a predominant topic, and it was explored with a primary focus on the improvement of grammatical proficiency. In addition to quantitative or experimental studies (Liao, a; Liao, b; Feng, Saricaoglu, & Chukharev-Hudilainen), Hoang & Kunnan conducted a case study about using My Access, adding a qualitative vantage point. The other two studies introduced the effects of different test media. Zhu, Shum, Tse, & Liu compared word-processor and pencil-and-paper tests, while Zou & Chen examined the effects of computer and paper tests on the writing scores and the cognitive process of test takers with different levels of computer familiarity.

Teachers and raters. Teachers and raters continued to receive a substantial amount of attention in the category of writing assessment. Three studies involved surveys in search of teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices in writing assessment (C. Chen; Crusan, Plakans, & Gebril; Marefat & Heydari). Other studies include Goodwin’s research on raters’ behaviors on reading and writing tests, and Vu’s examination of decision-making in placement tests.

Specific assessment methods and tasks were also investigated, adding practical insights. Ketabi compared various writing assessment methods of EFL teachers in Iran. Saliani proposed the portfolio as an alternative to reevaluate emergent bilingual writers. The other studies scrutinized the effects of particular tasks, such as process-based and impromptu timed writing exams (David), academic graph writing (H. Yang), source-based tasks (Gebril & Plakans), and integrated and independent writing tasks (Riazi).

Scoring rubrics. Research on scoring rubrics, a common theme in writing assessment, was also aligned with the overall trend in the assessment category, with the increasing emphasis on L2 learners rather than raters/teachers to a varying degree. Becker experimented with the formative value of learner-generated rubrics with regards to learners’ writing performance improvement. Ene and Kosobucki illuminated the interaction of scoring rubric and corrective feedback in light of a learner’s writing development and satisfaction. Lallmamode, Daud, & Kassim reported the development and validation of a scoring rubric to assess L2 writing electronic portfolios.

Genre and discipline. Beyond conventional issues, genre and discipline were also addressed in the category of assessment. J. Lee evaluated the connections among an ESL writing course, a first-year composition course, and content courses from a writing assessment perspective and emphasized the need for modifying writing assignments and evaluation practices to enhance L2 writing development on a coherent continuum. Dryer stressed the importance of alternative understandings of language in English writing assessment and suggested the revision of scales based on a translingual approach rather than on monolingualism.

Conclusion

In developing this overview, we are reminded once again of the rapid expansion in and the broadening scope of this robust field of inquiry. We hope that in providing this overview of scholarship published in the field of second language writing in 2016, we will help educators and scholars remain informed about the ongoing trends and new issues in second language writing theory, research, and instruction.

References

Abrams, Z. I., & Byrd, D. R. (2016). The effects of pre-task planning on L2 writing: Mind-mapping and chronological sequencing in a 1st-year German class. System, 63, 1-12.

Ahmed, A., & Abouabdelkader, H. (Eds.). (2016). Teaching EFL writing in the 21st century Arab world: Realities and challenges. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Al Karazoun, G. A. (2016). A linguistic analysis of errors committed by Jordanian EFL undergraduate students: A case of news headlines in Jordanian newspapers. English Language Teaching, 9(8), 170-189.

Alghammas, A. A. (2016). Wiki-based collaborative writing activities in ESL contexts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Memphis.

Alharbi, M. (2016). Exploring Saudi EFL learners’ perceptions of collaborative writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Memphis.

Alhujaylan, H. (2016). A computer-aided error analysis of Saudi students’ written English and an evaluation of the efficacy of using the data-driven learning approach to teach collocations and lexical phrases. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Essex.

Alisaari, J., & Heikkola, L. M. (2016). Increasing fluency in L2 writing with singing. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 271-292.

Allen, D., & Katayama, A. (2016). Relative second language proficiency and the giving and receiving of written peer feedback. System, 56, 96-106.

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Alshalan, A. M. (2016). The effects of Wiki-based collaborative writing on ESL students’ individual writing performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Wayne State University.

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Amiryousefi, M. (2016). The differential effects of two types of task repetition on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency in computer-mediated L2 written production: A focus on computer anxiety. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1050-1066.

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Aziz, R. A., Jin, C. C., & Nordin, N. M. (2016). The use of interactional metadiscourse in the construction of gender identities among Malaysian ESL learners. Language, Linguistics, Literature, 22(1), 207-220.

Azizoglu, B. E. (2016). Developing a rationale for a writing program on the basis of the poetic function of language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

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Bai, Y. (2016). Cross-linguistic transfer of spelling skills in Spanish-speaking adult ESL learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park.

Bailey, N. (2016). “The languages of other people”: The experiences of tutors, administrators, and students in a South African multilingual writing center. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana State University.

Barkaoui, K. (2016). What and when second language learners revise when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer: The roles of task type, second language proficiency, and keyboarding skills. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 320-340.

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Bawarshi, A. (2016). Beyond the genre fixation: A translingual perspective on genre. College English, 78(3), 243-249.

Becker, A. (2016). Student-generated scoring rubrics: Examining their formative value for improving ESL students’ writing performance. Assessing Writing, 29, 15-24.

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Bikowski, D., & Vithanage, R. (2016). Effects of web-based collaborative writing on individual L2 writing development. Language Learning & Technology, 20(1), 79-99.

Bitchener, J., & Storch, N. (2016). Written corrective feedback for L2 development. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Boshrabadi, A. M., & Sarabi, S. B. (2016). Cyber-communic@tion etiquette: The interplay between social distance, gender and discursive features of student-faculty email interactions. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 13(2), 86-106.

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Cahyono, B. Y., & Amrina, R. (2016). Indonesian EFL students’ perception on training in writing research articles for publication. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 859-866.

Cahyono, B. Y., & Mutiaraningrum, I. (2016). Indonesian EFL teachers’ familiarity with and opinion on the Internet-based teaching of writing. English Language Teaching, 9(1), 199- 208.

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Carter, K., & Aulette, J. (2016). Publish, Don’t Perish: Ten Tips. English Teaching Forum, 54(1), 20-28.

Cavazos, A. G. (2016). Latina/o academics’ resilient qualities in their linguistically diverse practices. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 15(1), 69-86.

Challob, A. I., Bakar, N. A., & Latif, H. (2016). Collaborative blended learning writing environment: Effects on EFL students’ writing apprehension and writing performance. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 229-241.

Chandler-Olcott, K., & Nieroda, J. (2016). The creation and evolution of a co-teaching community: How teachers learned to address adolescent English language learners’ needs as writers. Equity & Excellence in Education, 49(2), 170-182.

Chang, C. Y. H. (2016a). EFL reviewers’ emoticon use in asynchronous computer-mediated peer response. Computers and Composition, 40, 1-18.

Chang, C. Y. H. (2016b). Two decades of research in L2 peer review. Journal of Writing Research, 8(1), 81-117.

Chang, P. (2016). EFL doctoral students’ conceptions of authorial stance in academic research writing: An exploratory study. RELC Journal, 47(2), 175-192.

Chang, P., & Schleppegrell, M. (2016). Explicit learning of authorial stance-taking by L2 doctoral students. Journal of Writing Research, 8(1), 49-80.

Chen, C. W. Y. (2016). A survey on EFL teachers’ assessment methods in entry-level writing courses in technological universities in Taiwan. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics (PAAL), 20(1), 21-36.

Chen, P. J. (2016). Learners’ metalinguistic and affective performance in blogging to write. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 790-814.

Chen, T. (2016). Technology-supported peer feedback in ESL/EFL writing classes: A research synthesis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(2), 365-397.

Chen, Y. H., & Baker, P. (2014). Investigating criterial discourse features across second language development: Lexical bundles in rated learner essays, CEFR B1, B2 and C1. Applied Linguistics, 37(6), 849-880.

Chen, Y. S. (2016). Understanding the development of Chinese EFL learners’ email literacy through Exploratory Practice. Language Teaching Research, 20(2), 165-180.

Christiansen, M. S., & Bloch, J. (2016). Papers are never finished, just abandoned: The role of written teacher comments in the revision process. Journal of Response to Writing, 2(1), 6-42.

Collazo, K. (2016, October). An undergraduate’s reflection: From a writing center tutor to working with English language learners. SLW News.

Crane, C. (2016). A systemic functional linguistics analysis of student texts in German. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German, 49(2), 122-139.

Crawford, T., Mora Pablo, I., & Lengeling, M. M. (2016). Struggling authorial identity of second language university academic writers in Mexico. PROFILE: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 18(1), 115-127.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16.

Crosthwaite, P. (2016). A longitudinal multidimensional analysis of EAP writing: Determining EAP course effectiveness. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 166-178.

Crusan, D., Plakans, L., & Gebril, A. (2016). Writing assessment literacy: Surveying second language teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices. Assessing Writing, 28, 43-56.

Cumming, A., Lai, C., & Cho, H. (2016). Students’ writing from sources for academic purposes: A synthesis of recent research. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 23, 47-58.

Cushman, E. (2016). Translingual and decolonial approaches to meaning making. College English, 78(3), 234-242.

da Rosa, M. T. (2016). Self-fictions: writing among languages-cultures. Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, 16(1), 81-106.

Danzak, R. L., & Arfé, B. (2016). Globally minded text production: Bilingual, expository writing of Italian adolescents learning English. Topics in Language Disorders, 36(1), 35-51.

Darweesh, A. D., & Kadhim, S. A. H. (2016). Iraqi EFL learners’ problems in using conjunctions as cohesive devices. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(11), 169-180.

David, V. (2016). A comparison of two approaches for assessing L2 writing: Process-based and impromptu timed writing exams. Applied Language Learning, 26(1), 65-82.

Davies, R. J. (2016). English L2 composition pedagogy: Approaches and ideologies. Amazon Digital Services LLC.

De Oliveira, L. C., & Silva, T. (2016). Second language writing in elementary classrooms: Instructional issues, content-area writing and teacher education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dehghan, M., & Chalak, A. (2016). Code glosses in academic writing: The comparison of Iranian and native authors. Iranian Journal of Research in English Language Teaching, 3(2), 21-29.

Devi, B. R. (2016). Problems faced by the teachers of a large class in imparting writing skills at the tertiary level. Language in India, 16(4), 165-173.

di Gennaro, K. (2016). Searching for differences and discovering similarities: Why international and resident second-language learners’ grammatical errors cannot serve as a proxy for placement into writing courses. Assessing Writing, 29, 1-14.

Diab, N. M. (2016). A comparison of peer, teacher and self-feedback on the reduction of language errors in student essays. System, 57, 55-65.

Doolan, S. M., & Fitzsimmons-Doolan, S. (2016). Facilitating L2 writers’ interpretation of source texts. TESOL Journal, 7(3), 716-745.

Dryer, D. B. (2016). Appraising translingualism. College English, 78(3), 274-283.

Eckstein, G. (2016). Ideal versus reality: Student expectations and experiences in multilingual writing center tutorials. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Davis.

Edwards, A., & Lange, R. J. (2016). In case of innovation: Academic phraseology in the three circles. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 2(2), 252-277.

Elola, I., & Mikulski, A. M. (2016). Similar and/or different writing processes?: A study of Spanish foreign language and heritage language learners. Hispania, 99(1), 87-102.

Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2016). Supporting second language writing using multimodal feedback. Foreign Language Annals, 49(1), 58-74.

Elturki, E., & Salsbury, T. (2016). A cross-sectional investigation of the development of modality in English language learners’ writing: A corpus-driven study. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 20, 51-72.

Ene, E., & Kosobucki, V. (2016). Rubrics and corrective feedback in ESL writing: A longitudinal case study of an L2 writer. Assessing Writing, 30, 3-20.

Erdmann, S. (2016). Figurative language and multicultural education: Metaphors of language acquisition and retention. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(2), 184-198.

Fahmee, F., & Yong, M. F. (2016). Language choice in online written communication among Maldivian professionals. Language, Linguistics, Literature, 22(2), 49-66.

Fairclough, M., & Belpoliti, F. (2016). Emerging literacy in Spanish among Hispanic heritage language university students in the USA: A pilot study. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(2), 185-201.

Farhadi, S., Aidinloo, N. A., & Talebi, Z. (2016). The writing performance of Iranian EFL learners in the light of metadiscourse awareness. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 923-928.

Feng, H. H., Saricaoglu, A., & Chukharev-Hudilainen, E. (2016). Automated error detection for developing grammar proficiency of ESL learners. CALICO Journal, 33(1), 49-70.

Feng, H., & Du-Babcock, B. (2016). “Business is business”: Constructing cultural identities in a persuasive writing task. English for Specific Purposes, 44, 30-42.

Finn, H. B., & Avni, S. (2016). Academic literacy as language policy in community college developmental writing. Current Issues in Language Planning, 17(3-4), 369-384.

Flowerdew, J., & Wang, S. H. (2016). Author’s editor revisions to manuscripts published in international journals. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 39-52.

Garner, J. R. (2016). A phrase-frame approach to investigating phraseology in learner writing across proficiency levels. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 2(1), 31-67.

Gebril, A., & Plakans, L. (2016). Source-based tasks in academic writing assessment: Lexical diversity, textual borrowing and proficiency. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 24, 78-88.

Gherwash, G. (2016). From text to context: Literacy practices of native speakers of Arabic in Arabic and English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Purdue University.

Gilyard, K. (2016). The rhetoric of translingualism. College English, 78(3), 284-289.

Gonca, A. (2016). Do L2 writing courses affect the improvement of L1 writing skills via skills transfer from L2 to L1? Educational Research and Reviews, 11(10), 987-997.

Gonzales, L. J. (2016). Sites of translation: What multilinguals can teach us about writing, rhetoric, and technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.

Goodrich, J. M., Farrington, A. L., & Lonigan, C. J. (2016). Relations between early reading and writing skills among Spanish-speaking language minority children. Reading and Writing, 29(2), 297-319.

Goodwin, S. (2016). A Many-Facet Rasch analysis comparing essay rater behavior on an academic English reading/writing test used for two purposes. Assessing Writing, 30, 21-31.

Grabe, W., & Zhang, C. (2016). Reading-writing relationships in first and second language academic literacy development. Language Teaching, 49(03), 339-355.

Grami, G. M. A., & Alkazemi, B. Y. (2015). Improving ESL writing using an online formulaic sequence word‐combination checker. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(2), 95-104.

Guerra, J. C. (2016). Cultivating a rhetorical sensibility in the translingual writing classroom. College English, 78(3), 228-233.

Gustilo, L. E. (2016). Differences in less proficient and more proficient ESL college writing in the Philippine setting. The Philippine ESL Journal, 16, 27-45.

Haiyan, M., & Rilong, L. (2016). Classroom EFL writing: The alignment-oriented approach. English Language Teaching, 9(4), 76-82.

Hamilton, T. G., & Todd, R. W. (2016). Investigating models for second language spelling. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 167(1), 16-45.

Hanjani, M. A. (2016). Collaborative revision in L2 writing: Learners’ reflections. ELT Journal, 70(3), 296-308.

Harrison, G. (2016). Predictors of spelling and writing skills in first- and second-language learners. Reading & Writing, 29(1), 69-90.

He, X. (2016). An action research on improving non-English majors’ English writing by “basic sentence pattern translation drills”. English Language Teaching, 9(1), 142-147.

Hirvela, A. R. (2016). Connecting reading & writing in second language writing instruction (2nd edition). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Ho, M. (2016). Exploring writing anxiety and self-efficacy among EFL graduate students in Taiwan. Higher Education Studies, 6(1), 24-39.

Hoang, G. T. L., & Kunnan, A. J. (2016). Automated essay evaluation for English language learners: A case study of “My Access.” Language Assessment Quarterly, 13(4), 359-376.

Hosseini, M. (2016). Rhetorical transfer among young EFL learners: The first experience of paragraph writing investigated. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 876-885.

Hu, G., & Lei, J. (2016). Plagiarism in English academic writing: A comparison of Chinese university teachers’ and students’ understandings and stances. System, 56, 107-118.

Huang, S. (2016). No longer a teacher monologue—involving EFL writing learners in teachers’ assessment and feedback processes. Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 13(1), 1-31.

Humphrey, S., & Macnaught, L. (2016). Functional language instruction and the writing growth of English language learners in the middle years. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 792-816.

Hyland, K. (2016a). Academic publishing and the myth of linguistic injustice. Journal of Second Language Writing, 31, 58-69.

Hyland, K. (2016b). Language myths and publishing mysteries: A response to Politzer-Ahles et al. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 9-11.

Hyland, K. (2016c). Methods and methodologies in second language writing research. System, 59, 116-125.

Iida, A. (2016). Poetic identity in second language writing: Exploring an EFL learner’s study abroad experience. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 1-14.

Ismail, F.S. (2016). Perceived influence of formal second language education on first language writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Jayaron, J., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2016). A pedagogical perspective on promoting English as a foreign language writing through online forum discussions. English Language Teaching, 9(2), 84-101.

Jiang, D. (2016). An empirical study on alleviating career English writing anxiety through cooperative learning in a Chinese Polytechnic Institute. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(1), 173-182.

Jiang, L., & Luk, J. (2016). Multimodal composing as a learning activity in English classrooms: Inquiring into the sources of its motivational capacity. System, 59, 1-11.

Jin, X., & Shang, Y. (2016). Analyzing metadiscourse in the English abstracts of BA theses. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(1), 210-215.

Joaquin, A. D., Kim, S. H., & Shin, S. Y. (2016). Examining prewriting strategies in L2 writing: Do they really work? Asian EFL Journal, 18(2), 156-189.

Johnson, M. D., & Nicodemus, C. L. (2016). Testing a threshold: An approximate replication of Johnson, Mercado & Acevedo 2012. Language Teaching, 49(2), 251-274.

Johnson, M. D., Acevedo, A., & Mercado, L. (2016). Vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary use in second language writing. TESOL Journal, 7(3), 700-715.

Jordan, J. (2016). Triangulating translingualism: Comment on Jay Jordan’s “material translingual ecologies”/Jay Jordan responds. College English, 78(4), 390-393.

Jung, M. Y. (2016). Peer/teacher-assessment using criteria in the EFL classroom for developing students L2 writing. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 1-20.

Kadiri, G. C., Igbokwe, U. L., Okebalama, U. N., & Egbe, C. I. (2016). The use of lexical cohesion elements in the writing of ESL learners. Research in Language, 14(3), 221-234.

Kakh, S., & Bitchener, J. (2016). Short communication on the 14th Symposium on Second Language Writing (SSLW 2015): Learning to write for academic purposes: Advancing theory, research and practice. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 36-38.

Kamimura, T. (2016). Skilled and unskilled Japanese EFL student writers’ narrative story production. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 37-54.

Kazemi, A. (2016). Hedging in academic writing: The case of Iranian EFL journals. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(4), 109-130.

Kelly, L. J. (2016). ‘Does the mirror speak my language? : A comparison of L1 and L2 student reflections on their experiences in a small-group writing tutorial. RELC Journal, 47(2), 229-243.

Ketabi, S. (2016). Different methods of assessing writing among EFL teachers in Iran. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning. 5(2), 3-15.

Khanlarzadeh, M., & Nemati, M. (2016). The effect of written corrective feedback on grammatical accuracy of EFL students: An improvement over previous unfocused designs. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 4(2), 55-68.

Kheradmand Saadi, Z. (2016). Meaning making, agency, and languaging in dialogic interactions on academic writing tasks: A sociocultural discourse analysis. ERIC document: ED566408.

Kibler, A. K., Heny, N. A., & Andrei, E. (2016). In-service teachers’ perspectives on adolescent ELL writing instruction. TESOL Journal, 7(2), 350-392.

Kim, B., & Kim, H. (2016). Korean college EFL learners’ task motivation in written language production. International Education Studies, 9(2), 42-50.

Kim, S. (2016). No point in talking about what I want to the teachers: A call for a dialogic needs assessment. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 18(2), 190-215.

Kim, Y. (2016). A framework for understanding second language writing strategies.Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Arizona State University.

Kosaka, M. (2016). How I have improved my English writing skills. TESOL Journal, 7(2), 497-499.

Kostka, I., & Maliborska, V. (2016). Using Turnitin to provide feedback on L2 writers’ texts. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 20(2), 1-22.

Kyle, K., & Crossley, S. (2016). The relationship between lexical sophistication and independent and source-based writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 12-24.

Lallmamode, S. P.,Daud, N. M., & Kassim, N. L. A. (2016). Development and initial argument based validation of a scoring rubric used in the assessment of L2 writing electronic portfolios. Assessing Writing, 30, 44-62.

Lee, C. (2016). Second language learners’ self-perceived roles and participation in face-to-face English writing consultations. System, 63, 51-64.

Lee, I. (2016a). Putting students at the centre of classroom L2 writing assessment. Canadian Modern Language Review, 72(2), 258-280.

Lee, I. (2016b). Teacher education on feedback in EFL writing: Issues, challenges, and future directions. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 518-527.

Lee, I., Mak, P., & Burns, A. (2016). EFL teachers’ attempts at feedback innovation in the writing classroom. Language Teaching Research, 20(2), 248-269.

Lee, J. (2016). Transfer from ESL academic writing to first year composition and other disciplinary courses: An assessment perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Iowa State University.

Lee, J. J., & Deakin, L. (2016). Interactions in L1 and L2 undergraduate student writing: Interactional metadiscourse in successful and less-successful argumentative essays. Journal of Second Language Writing, 33, 21-34.

Lee, J. W. (2016). Beyond Translingual Writing. College English, 79(2), 174-195.

Lee, J. W., & Jenks, C. (2016). Doing translingual dispositions. College Composition and Communication, 68(2), 317-344.

Lee, J., & Heinz, M. (2016). English language learning strategies reported by advanced language learners. Journal of International Education Research, 12(2), 67-76.

Lee, J., & Schallert, D. (2016). Exploring the reading–writing connection: A yearlong classroom-based experimental study of middle school students developing literacy in a new language. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(2), 143-164.

Lei, X. (2016). Understanding writing strategy use from a sociocultural perspective: The case of skilled and less skilled writers. System, 60, 105-116.

Leonard, R. L., & Nowacek, R. (2016). Transfer and translingualism. College English, 78(3), 258-264.

Li, M., & Kim, D. (2016). One wiki, two groups: Dynamic interactions across ESL collaborative writing tasks. Journal of Second Language Writing, 31, 25-42.

Liao, H. C. (2016a). Enhancing the grammatical accuracy of EFL writing by using an AWE-assisted process approach. System, 62, 77-92.

Liao, H. C. (2016b). Using automated writing evaluation to reduce grammar errors in writing. ELT Journal, 70(3), 308-319.

Liardét, C. L. (2016). Nominalization and grammatical metaphor: Elaborating the theory. English for Specific Purposes, 44, 16-29.

Lin, Y. (2016). Decoding complex constructs of the integrated reading-writing task: Modeling relationships among second language reading/writing proficiency, familiarity with text features, perceived cognitive operation difficulty, and summary writing through the structural equation modeling approach. Unpublished dissertation. Indiana University.

Liu, Q. (2016). Effectiveness of coded corrective feedback in the development of linguistic accuracy in L2 writing: Impact of error types and learner attitudes. Unpublished dissertation. Northern Arizona University.

Lu, M. Z., & Horner, B. (2016). Introduction: Translingual work. College English, 78(3), 207-218.

Luo, N., & Hyland, K. (2016). Chinese academics writing for publication: English teachers as text mediators. Journal of Second Language Writing, 33, 43-55.

Mahdavirad, F. (2016). The effect of personal familiar vs. impersonal less familiar topic on expository writing task performance. The Linguistics Journal, 10(1), 89-105.

Maliborska, V., & You, Y. (2016). Writing conferences in a second language writing classroom: Instructor and student perspectives. TESOL Journal, 7(4), 874-897.

Mallahi, O., Amirian, S. M. R., Zareian, G. R., & Adel, S. M. R. (2016). An investigation into the individual differences correlates of Iranian undergraduate EFL learners’ writing competence: A mixed methods approach. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 99-140.

Manchón, R. M., & Matsuda, P. K. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of second and foreign language writing. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Marefat, F., & Heydari, M. (2016). Native and Iranian teachers’ perceptions and evaluation of Iranian students’ English essays. Assessing Writing, 27, 24-36.

Marzec-Stawiarska, M. (2016). The influence of summary writing on the development of reading skills in a foreign language. System, 59, 90-99.

Masaeli, N., & Chalak, A. (2016). The effect of employing electronic portfolio on Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(4), 746-751.

Mashhadizadeh, D., & Rezvani, E. (2016). Iranian EFL learners’ attitude towards the use of WBLL approach in writing. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 5(3), 29-38.

Massung, S., & Zhai, C. (2016). Non-native text analysis: A survey. Natural Language Engineering, 22(02), 163-186.

McDonough, K., Crawford, W. J., & De Vleeschauwer, J. (2016). Thai EFL learners’ interaction during collaborative writing tasks and its relationship to text quality. Language Learning and Language Teaching, 45, 185-208.

Meurers, D. (2016). How can writing tasks be characterized in a way serving pedagogical goals and automatic analysis needs? CALICO Journal, 33(1), 19-48.

Miller, L. (2016). Collaborative script writing for a digital media project. Writing & Pedagogy, 8(1), 215-228.

Miller, R. T., & Pessoa, S. (2016). Where’s your thesis statement and what happened to your topic sentences? Identifying organizational challenges in undergraduate student argumentative writing. TESOL Journal, 7(4), 847-873.

Miller, R. T., Mitchell, T. D., & Pessoa, S. (2016). Impact of source texts and prompts on students’ genre uptake. Journal of Second Language Writing, 31, 11-24.

Milu, E. (2016). “Hatucheki Na Watu”: Kenyan hip-hop artists’ theories of multilingualism, identity and decoloniality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.

Min, H. T. (2016). Effect of teacher modeling and feedback on EFL students’ peer review skills in peer review training. Journal of Second Language Writing, 31, 43-57.

Min, Y. K. (2016). Rethinking ESL service courses for international graduate students. TESOL Journal, 7(1), 162-178.

Mirzaee, M., & Yaqubi, B. (2016). A conversation analysis of the function of silence in writing conferences. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 4(2), 69-86.

Montanari, S., Simón-Cereijido, G., & Hartel, A. (2016). The development of writing skills in an Italian-English two-way immersion program: Evidence from first through fifth grade. International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(1), 44-58.

Motlhaka, H. A., & Makalela, L. (2016). Translanguaging in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 34(3), 251-260.

Mu, C., & Matsuda, P. K. (2016). Replication in L2 writing research: Journal of Second Language Writing authors’ perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 50(1), 201-219.

Murphy, G. A. (2016). Worlds apart? International students, source-based writing, and faculty development across the curriculum. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

Naghdipour, B. (2016). English writing instruction in Iran: Implications for second language writing curriculum and pedagogy. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 81-87.

Nathan, P. (2016). Analysing options in pedagogical business case reports: Genre, process and language. English for Specific Purposes, 44, 1-15.

Nodoushan, M. A. S. (2016). Working on the ‘write’ path: Improving EFL students’ argumentative-writing performance through L1-mediated structural cognitive modification. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(4), 131-152.

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O’Meara, K. (2016a). A community of second language writing at Arizona State University: An institutional ethnography. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Arizona State University.

O’Meara, K. D. (2016b). Providing sustained support for teachers and students in the L2 writing classroom using writing fellow tutors. Journal of Response to Writing, 2(2), 66-87.

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Öztürk, Y., & Köse, G. D. (2016). Turkish and native English academic writers’ use of lexical bundles. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 12(1), 149-165.

Paiz, J. M. (2016, October). A call to queer L2 writing. SLW News.

Pan, F., Reppen, R., & Biber, D. (2016). Comparing patterns of L1 versus L2 English academic professionals: Lexical bundles in telecommunications research journals. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 21, 60-71.

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Park, J. (2016). Integrating reading and writing through extensive reading. ELT Journal, 70(3), 287-295.

Polio, C., & Friedman, D. A. (2016). Understanding, evaluating, and conducting second language writing research. New York, NY: Routledge.

Politzer-Ahles, S., Holliday, J. J., Girolamo, T., Spychalska, M., & Berkson, K. H. (2016). Is linguistic injustice a myth? A response to Hyland (2016). Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 3-8.

Poole, R. (2016). A corpus-aided approach for the teaching and learning of rhetoric in an undergraduate composition course for L2 writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 21, 99-109.

Porto, M. (2016). Cooperative writing response groups: Revising global aspects of second-language writing in a constrained educational environment. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40(3), 293-315.

Qasim, A. (2016). Use of corrective feedback to foster learner autonomy: Pakistani university teachers’ perspectives and practices regarding EFL error feedback. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Memphis.

Qin, W., & Uccelli, P. (2016). Same language, different functions: A cross-genre analysis of Chinese EFL learners’ writing performance. Journal of Second Language Writing, 33, 3-17.

Ramanan, K. L. (2016). Different types of free variation in the writing of Sri Lankan ESL learners. Language in India, 16(4), 155-164.

Randall, S. J. (2016). An exploration of a university academic bridge program for English language learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona.

Ray, B. (2016). Triangulating translingualism: Comment on Jay Jordan’s “Material translingual ecologies.” College English, 78(4), 387-390.

Reynolds, B. L. (2016). Action research: Applying a bilingual parallel corpus collocational concordancer to Taiwanese medical school EFL academic writing. RELC Journal, 47(2), 213-227.

Rezeki, Y. S. (2016). Indonesian English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners’ experiences in collaborative writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Rochester.

Riazi, A. M. (2016). Comparing writing performance in TOEFL-iBT and academic assignments: An exploration of textual features. Assessing Writing, 28, 15-27.

Romero, Y. (2016). Intersectionality in the language learning and writing classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Washington.

Rouhshad, A., & Storch, N. (2016). A focus on mode: Patterns of interaction in face-to-face and computer-mediated contexts. Language Learning and Teaching, 45,267-289.

Rowe, D. W., & Miller, M. E. (2016). Designing for diverse classrooms: Using iPads and digital cameras to compose eBooks with emergent bilingual/biliterate four-year-olds. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 16(4), 425-472.

Rowley, L. (2016, March). Putting written corrective feedback into practice. SLW News.

Saeed, M. A., & Ghazali, K. (2016). Modeling peer revision among EFL learners in an online learning community. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 13(2), 275-292.

Saeli, H. (2016). Iranian EFL teachers’ and students’ perceptions of grammar-centered written corrective feedback: Impact of sociocultural norms about English education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Oklahoma State University.

Salas, S., Garson, K., Khanna S., & Murray B. (2016). Using free writing to make sense of literature. English Teaching Forum, 54(2), 12-19.

Saliani, E. C. (2016). Revaluing writers in a value-added world: An exploration of the writing of emergent bilingual students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Hofstra University.

Salido, M. G. (2016). Error analysis of support verb constructions in written Spanish learner corpora. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 362-376.

Salter-Dvorak, H. (2016). Learning to argue in EAP: Evaluating a curriculum innovation from the inside. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 19-31.

Schanding, B. (2016). Shell noun use in argumentative essay writing of English learners and native English speakers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati.

Schenker, T. (2016). Syntactic complexity in a cross-cultural E-mail exchange. System, 63, 40-50.

Setyowati, L. (2016). Analyzing the students’ ability in writing opinion essay using flash fiction. JELTL (Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics), 1(1), 79-92.

Seyyedrezaie, Z., Ghonsooly, B., Shahriari, H., & Fatemi, A. (2016). A mixed methods analysis of the effect of Google docs environment on EFL learners' writing performance and causal attributions for success and failure. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 17(3), 90-110.

Shapiro, S., Cox, M., Shuck, G., & Simnitt, E. (2016). Teaching for agency: From appreciating linguistic diversity to empowering student writers. Composition Studies, 44(1), 31-52.

Shepherd, R. P., O'Meara, K. D., & Snyder, S. E. (2016). Grammar agreements: Crafting a more finely-tuned approach to corrective feedback. Journal of Response to Writing, 2(1), 43-57.

Shi, L. (2016). Textual appropriation in two discipline-specific undergraduate writings. Writing & Pedagogy, 8(1), 91-116.

Shintani, N. (2016). The effects of computer-mediated synchronous and asynchronous direct corrective feedback on writing: A case study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(3), 517-538.

Shintani, N., Aubrey, S., & Donnellan, M. (2016). The effects of pre‐task and post‐task metalinguistic explanations on accuracy in second language writing. TESOL Quarterly, 50(4), 945-955.

Shipka, J. (2016). Transmodality in/and processes of making: Changing dispositions and practice. College English, 78(3), 250-257.

Shirinian, M. (2016). Effectiveness of instructor feedback on ESL student writing: A case study. Unpublished dissertation. Northcentral University.

Shum, M. S. K., Shi, D., & Tai, C. P. (2016). The effectiveness of using reading to learn, learning to write pedagogy in teaching Chinese to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(3), 43-60.

Shvidko, E. (2016a, March). An interview with Professor Icy Lee. SLW News.

Shvidko, E. (2016b, October). An interview with Professor Paul Kei Matsuda. SLW News.

Shvidko, E. (2016c, October). The impact of negative institutional factors on teacher feedback. SLW News.

Silva, T, Chen, Y, Velazquez, A., & Yang, K. (2016, October). Scholarship on L2 writing in 2015: The year in review. SLW News.

Silva, T., Park, H., Zhang, A., & Chen, Y. (2016, March). Scholarship on L2 writing in 2014: The year in review. SLW News.

Silva, T., Wang, J., Zhang, C., & Paiz, J.M. (Eds.). (2016). L2 writing in the global context: Represented, underrepresented, and unrepresented voices. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Simpson, S., Caplan, N., Cox, M., & Phillips, T. (Eds.). (2016). Supporting graduate student writers: Research, curriculum, & program design. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Singhasak, P., & Methitham, P. (2016). Non-native English varieties: Thainess in English narratives. English Language Teaching, 9(4), 128-138.

Sivaslian, L. (2016). “Two heads are better than one”: A curricular innovation through peer feedback in a low-proficiency ESL writing class. CATESOL Journal, 28, 1-38.

Solati-Dehkordi, S. A., & Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of explicit vocabulary instruction on writing achievement of upper-intermediate EFL learners. International Education Studies, 9(4), 141-154.

Soltero-González, L., & Butvilofsky, S. (2016). The early Spanish and English writing development of simultaneous bilingual preschoolers. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 16(4), 473-497.

Spence, L., & Tao, Y. (2016). Analysis of compositions written by a Chinese child in Japan. IAFOR Journal of Education, 4(1), 31-50.

Sprague, A. (2016). Improving the ESL graduate writing classroom using Socrative: (Re)considering exit tickets. TESOL Journal, 7(4), 989-998.

Staples, S., & Reppen, R. (2016). Understanding first-year L2 writing: A lexico-grammatical analysis across L1s, genres, and language ratings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 17-35.

Stockall, N., & Villar Cole, C. (2016). Hidden voices: L2 students’ compensatory writing strategies. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(3), 344-357.

Su, I. R., & Chou, Y. C. (2016). L1-L2 transfer in the narrative styles of Chinese ESL learners’ written personal narratives. Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 13(2), 1-34.

Tang, S. (2016). Digital storytelling approach in a multimedia feature writing course. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(3), 572-578.

Teng, L. S. (2016). Changes in teachers’ beliefs after a professional development project for teaching writing: Two Chinese cases. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(1), 106-109.

Thierfelder, P., & Stapleton, P. (2016). Errors in the written English of native users of sign language: An exploratory case study of Hong Kong deaf students.System, 58, 12-24.

Tigchelaar, M. (2016). The impact of peer review on writing development in French as a foreign language. Journal of Response to Writing, 2(2), 6-36.

Tomaš, Z., & Mott-Smith, J. (2016, October). Enriching learning, saving time: Designing effective academic writing courses. SLW News.

Tran, T. T., Tutin, A., & Cavalia, C. (2016). On the systematic teaching of discourse markers using a corpus in a French foreign language class: The example of reformulation markers. Linguistik Online, 78(4), 113-128.

Trimbur, J. (2016). Translingualism and close reading. College English, 78(3), 219-227.

Troyan, F. J. (2016). Learning to mean in Spanish writing: A case study of a genre-based pedagogy for standards‐based writing instruction. Foreign Language Annals , 49(2), 317-335.

Tuyen, K. T., Osman, S. B., Dan, T. C., & Ahmad, N. S. B. (2016). Developing research paper writing programs for EFL/ESL undergraduate students using process genre approach. Higher Education Studies, 6(2), 19-29.

Vedder, I., & Benigno, V. (2016). Lexical richness and collocational competence in second-language writing. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(1), 23-42.

Vikneswaran, T., & Krish, P. (2016). Utilising social networking sites to improve writing: A case study with Chinese students in Malaysia. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 25(3), 287-300.

Vu, N. H. (2016). Predictive modeling of human placement decisions in an English writing placement test. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Iowa State University.

Wagner, J. (2016). An explanation of the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in second-language acquisition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. George Mason University.

Wang, W. (2016a). Intertextual practices in academic writing by Chinese ESL students. Applied Linguistics Review, 7(1), 53-72.

Wang, W. (2016b). Peer feedback in Chinese college English writing class: Using action research to promote students’ English writing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 958-966.

Wang, X., Shen, L., & Lu, X. (2016). Journal between peer learners: An innovative project to motivate EFL writers. RELC Journal, 47(2), 245-252.

Wei, J. (2015a). Theme and thematic progression in Chinese college students’ English essays. Singapore: Springer.

Wei, J. (2016b). Thematic choice in Chinese college students’ English essays. English for Specific Purposes, 41, 50-67.

Williams, J., & Condon, F. (2016). Translingualism in composition studies and second language writing: An uneasy alliance. TESL Canada Journal, 33(2), 1-18.

Woodard, W. J. Audiovisual feedback in EFL/ESL writing classes. English Teaching Forum, 54(2), 29-32.

Xiao, Y. (2016). An exploratory investigation into the metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive strategies of university EFL writers in China. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. New York University.

Xie, J. (2016). Direct or indirect? Critical or uncritical? Evaluation in Chinese English-major MA thesis literature reviews. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 23, 1-15.

Xu, M., Huang, C., & You, X. (2016). Reasoning patterns of undergraduate theses in translation studies: An intercultural rhetoric study. English for Specific Purposes, 41, 68-81.

Yang, H. C. (2016). Describing and interpreting graphs: The relationships between undergraduate writer characteristics and academic graph writing performance. Assessing Writing, 28, 28-42.

Yang, L. (2016). Languaging in story rewriting tasks by Chinese EFL students. Language Awareness, 25(3), 241-255.

Yang, Y. (2016). Appraisal resources in Chinese college students’ English argumentative writing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 1002-1013.

Yang, Y. F. (2016). Transforming and constructing academic knowledge through online peer feedback in summary writing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 683-702.

Yeh, C. C. (2016). EFL college students’ experiences and attitudes towards teacher-student writing conferences. Journal of Response to Writing, 2(2), 37-65.

Yoon, C. (2016a). Concordancers and dictionaries as problem-solving tools for ESL academic writing. Language Learning & Technology, 20(1), 209-229.

Yoon, C. (2016b). Individual differences in online reference resource consultation: Case studies of Korean ESL graduate writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 67-80.

Yoon, H. J. (2016). Association strength of verb-noun combinations in experienced NS and less experienced NNS writing: Longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 42-57.

Yu, S., & Lee, I. (2016a). Exploring Chinese students' strategy use in a cooperative peer feedback writing group. System, 58, 1-11.

Yu, S., & Lee, I. (2016b). Peer feedback in second language writing (2005–2014). Language Teaching, 49(4), 461-493.

Yu, S., & Lee, I. (2016c). Understanding the role of learners with low English language proficiency in peer feedback of second language writing. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 483-494.

Zarepour, F. (2016). Cohesion analysis of Iranian advanced EFL learners’ writing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(2), 408-415.

Zarepour, F., & Saidloo, M. I. (2016). An analysis of Iranian EFL learners’ English written requestive e-mails. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(3), 579-585.

Zhai, L. (2016). A study on Chinese EFL learners’ vocabulary usage in writing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(4), 752-759.

Zhang, C. (2016). Writing their way to the university: An investigation of Chinese high school students' preparation for writing in English in high schools, cram schools, and online. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Purdue University.

Zhu, Y., Shum, S-K.M., Tse, S-K. B., & Liu, J. J. (2016). Word-processor or pencil-and-paper? A comparison of students’ writing in Chinese as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(3), 596-617.

Zou, B., Wang, D., & Xing, M. (2016). Collaborative tasks in Wiki-based environment in EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1000-1016.

Zou, X. L., & Chen, Y. M. (2016). Effects of test media on different EFL test-takers in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 25(1), 79-99.


Tony Silva is Professor of English and the Director of the Graduate Program in Second Language Studies in the Department of English at Purdue University.

Kai Yang is a doctoral student in the Graduate Program in Second Language Studies at Purdue University, where he also teaches first-year composition. He is interested in how the field of L2 writing has developed scientifically. More specifically, his research interests include the theoretical, methodological, and philosophical aspects of L2 writing research.

Elena Shvidko is an assistant professor in ESL at the Department of Languages, Philosophy, and Communication Studies at Utah State University. Her research interests include second language writing, multimodal interaction, and interpersonal aspects of teaching.

Ji-young Shin is a PhD student in the Second Language Studies program at Purdue University. With her diverse background as a secondary education EFL teacher, textbook writer, and national exam writer, Ji-young researches issues in language testing/assessment and corpus linguistics, especially at their interface with second language writing.

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